cross examination evidence act

144. Although its the most integral and interesting part of the trial per se, it is adored by the audience when it appears to be in a movie scene or a series. You can do anything with a bayonet except sit on it. Questions lawful in cross-examination. Section 138 of the Indian Evidence Act 1872 – this provides that cross-examination and examination in chief must coincide with relevant facts. After the plaintiff's attorney completes the direct examination, the defendant's attorney gets to cross-examine the witness. It is important that laws and regulations are promulgated in order to avoid a state of lawlessness, hence the need to explore the Indian Law, as well as, peruse through the cross-examination process in India. The Judge goes to the live link room with counsel to meet the witness, and then returns to the Courtroom where they will be for the cross examination. As far as the practice of law is concerned, there are few things more satisfying than an effective cross-examination. Cross-examination is a fundamental right in the American system of justice. According to this Section, Witnesses … Cross-examination allows the veracity of a witness to be challenged through questions directed at his status in life, conduct or previous conviction by a competent court. Which of the following section of the Indian Evidence Act deals with Judges and Magistrates? unLAWk India is a platform to promote legal knowledge and updates. When they may be asked. This Court in Bhagwan Singh v. 2. It says that “Witnesses shall be first examined-in-chief, then (if the adverse party so desires) cross-examined, then (if the party calling him so desires) re-examined. A question that suggests an answer which the person directing it intends to hear is called a leading question. There have been remarkable positive changes in the act which meets with the modern situation and times. Witness Testimonies hold primary importance in the trial. 5.86 As a result of the amendments, s 41 of the Evidence Act 1995 (NSW) no longer applies to the cross-examination of witnesses in criminal proceedings, but continues to apply in civil proceedings. It has been argued that a question and answer method of eliciting information can be socially distressing for ATSI witnesses, because it is antithetical to their culture and style of communication, which emphasises narr… (1) This section applies where an accused is prevented from cross-examining a witness in person by virtue of section 34, 35 or 36. During court proceedings, witnesses are called to the stand and questioned by the attorney who called them. “Cross-examination is the greatest legal engine ever invented for the discovery of truth. Witnesses shall be first examined-in-chief, then (if the adverse party so desires) cross-examined, then (if the party calling him so desires) re-examined. 5.14 The question and answer method for eliciting evidence may be particularly inappropriate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) witnesses who are not accustomed to this method of communication or to approaching a story in a direct way in response to specific questions. 140. Leading questions. When they must not be asked. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. 138. This is not a very good -definition of a hostile witness and the Indian Evidence Act is most careful in Section 154 not to restrict the right of ‘cross-examination’ even by committing itself to the word ‘hostile’. Evidence of eyewitness has to be form of examination-in-chief and cross, re-examination. Cross-Examination of person called to produce a document (Section 139): A person summoned to produce a document does not become a witness and cannot be cross-examined unless he is called as a witness. Section 35 (3) (i) of the Constitution provides that an accused person has the right to ‘adduce and challenge evidence’. Is it true that you have never completed your duties as early as 3:00 pm. Direction of re-examination. Section 140 . Cross-examination has evolved over the years due to experiences acquired during court proceedings which have spanned through centuries. Many books are being authored by these renowned jurists, explaining the aspects and principles of  cross examinations like The Art of Cross- Examination, by Francis L. Wellman, The Lost Art of Cross-Examination, by J.W. As to comparison of disputed writing 31. Indian Evidence Act, 1872 . Evidence Act (CHAPTER 97) Status: Current version as at 28 Dec 2020 Print . Leading questions. No examination of a witness can be complete if the adverse party is illegally refused permission to cross-examine him or the party calling him is refused permission to re-examine him.. Evidence Act. The challenging of evidence is through cross-examination. Reexamination: Once a witness has given their examination -in-chief and been cross-examined by the other side the attorney may re-examine their witness.  Re-examination is to give the witness an opportunity to explain any matters raised during cross-examination and is therefore limited to only those matters that were raised during cross-examination. Section 153 provides protection of a witness’ If a witness has answered a question as to his credit, no evidence shall be admissible to contradict his answer. Examination in Chief is also known as Direct Examination. It must be noted that if a defense lawyer does not call out the omission and contradiction observed during the cross-examination period, he will not be permitted to point it out in the future trial. From the beginning of the trials in court, it is believed that a good cross is performed by a good and skilled advocate. 143. In a civil or criminal proceeding, a Judge may, on the application of a witness, or a party calling a witness, or on the Judge’s own initiative, order that a party to the proceeding must not personally cross-examine the witness. This implies that cross-examination must be confined to the testimonies of the witness during his examination in chi… The examination and cross-examination must relate to relevant facts but the cross-examination need not be confined to the facts to which the witness testified on his examination-in-chief. Witnesses to character. When witness to be compelled to answer. 95 Restrictions on cross-examination by parties in person (1) A defendant in a sexual case, or a defendant in or a party to criminal or civil proceedings concerning family violence or harassment, is not entitled to personally cross-examine— This is known as “cross-examination,” The jury and the judge pay 100% attention while the cross examination is happening to interpret the facts in the issue and reach a judgement. Regardless of it, in general conceptions, it is a skill acquired by advocates. To become more familiar with it, we should consider the subject from different angles. Although it’s the most challenging part, it is also the most interesting part of the the court proceeding per se, as it is involves story telling of the facts and events which have taken place or which may have taken place, which eventually helps in reaching a fair and just verdict. (1) Parts I, II and III shall apply to all judicial proceedings in or before any court, but not to affidavits … Section 138. This section talks about the order of examination of a witness. ––The examination of a witness, subsequent to the cross-examination by the party who called him, shall be called his re-examination. Questions lawful in cross-examination. This section brings under its purview, the concept of a hostile witness. 143. 153. After that attorney ends his questioning, the attorney for the opposing party is given the opportunity to ask questions of the same witness. There is in fact no statutory right to cross-examine a witness. After the plaintiff's attorney completes the direct examination, the defendant's attorney gets to cross-examine the witness. 155. It has been defined by the Supreme Court in Sat Paul v Delhi Administration (AIR 1976 SC 303), as one who is not desirous of telling the truth at the instance of the party calling him. Evidence through electrical medium: Under the Indian Evidence Act, s.65A and 65B deals with evidence in electronic format. Cross-examination on previous statements in writing. It allows for the party, who has called upon a witness, to put up any questions to the witness as could be asked to him during cross-examination. any cross-examination is the Evidence Act 1995. A witness may also testify to facts mentioned in any such document as is mentioned in section 159, although he has no specific recollection of the facts themselves, if he is sure that the facts were correctly recorded in the document. 156. The defense lawyer must prepare himself adequately for the upcoming cross-examination. 158. Re-examination. Section 145 – Section 165 of the act lay down the provisions for the questioning during cross examination. Questions tending to corroborate evidence of relevant fact are admissible in cross examination. Therefore, the court can only accept his claims if he passes the cross-examination were the truth will be revealed. Section 138 of Indian Evidence Act provides for the Order of examination. 141. It follows that the provision that a witness shall be examined means not only that he shall be examined in chief but also that he should be permitted to be cross-examined and re-examined. Cross Examination Of Witnesses under Indian Evidence Act,1872, Preventive Detention Law under the Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act 1978. 139. This order is prescribed in section 138 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (thereafter referred to as ‘the act’) in which it is stated-. Must you be working for Luke Good in December? The act states that a witness must first be examined in chief before being cross-examined then can possibly be re-examined. Cross-examination on previous statements in writing. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Copyright © 2020 unLAWk India. Cross-examination is a fundamental right in the American system of justice. The challenging of evidence is through cross-examination. Cross-examination. C. Section 137 . Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Suspicion of rape as body of a 17 year old girl was found on railway tracks naked and bruised! Groundwater and Corporate Liability – An overview on the Plachimada Case, Arbitration Centres and Institutions of the World, BMC should take action in accordance with the Law: Bombay High Court. It can either be constructive or destructive i.e it can either bring in light of the judge and jury, a fact or an event corroborating with the intended theory or it  can destroy the credibility of a witness by proving that the testimony presented does not corroborate with the facts and events, or it is not the whole truth or the person has a weak memory.etc. A lawyer can do anything with cross-examination if he is skillful enough not to impale his own cause upon it.”. In criminal law proceedings the right to cross-examination is guaranteed by s 35 (3) (i) of the Constitution and by s 166 of the Criminal Procedure Act. Ehrlich, and The Art of Questioning – Thirty Maxims of Cross-Examination, by Peter Megargee Brown. The attorney may ask leading questions during cross-examination. 142. Although its a tiring job, the lawyers practice it with a lot of pleasure. When witness to be compelled to answer. Some of them are born with it and some are created with relentless hardwork and innumerable hours of practice in the trial courts. Witnesses to character. The act states that a witness must first be examined in chief before being cross-examined then can possibly be re-examined. It is a province of a party by whom the witness is called to examine him in chief for the purpose of eliciting from the witness all the material facts within his knowledge which tend to prove the party’s case. Evidence as to matters in writing. Status: Current version as at 28 Dec 2020 . Cross-examination And Its Legal Provisions Under Indian Law-EvidenceAct. Cross-examination of person called to produce a document. Re-examination. any cross-examination is the Evidence Act 1995. A. Your email address will not be published. i) By producing witnesses who testify from their personal knowledge of the witness that such person is unworthy of credit. The witness may use copy of document to refresh memory under section 159 of the act. As far as the practice of law is concerned, there are few things more satisfying than an effective cross-examination. When section 28 of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 (s.28 YJCEA 1999) is bought into force by Statutory Instrument, under that S.I section 28 will be available … The Need To Raise Awareness Regarding Domestic Violence, Dishonor of Cheque under Section 138 of Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881, Criminal Case Against Kangana Ranaut in 65th MM Court, Andheri, CBI takes charge over Sushant Singh Rajput Case [DOWNLOAD THE FIR]. As per Section 142 leading questions must not, if objected to by the adverse party be asked in an examination-in-chief. Cross-examination is the process whereby a party who appears in court asks the opposing witness’ party questions to ascertain the veracity of his claims. Dr Avtar Singh, Central Law Publications, Principles of the law of evidence. –– The examination of witness by the party who calls him shall be called his examination-in-chief. If the party that called the witness sees the need to examine the witness again after cross-examination, they may examine the witness one more time. This preparation will enable him to point out any omission or contradiction that had existed during the examination in chief. Section 135–165 of the Evidence Act, 1872 deals with examination and cross-examination of witnesses. I will deal specifically with sections 32, 38, 43, 44, 45 and 108 (3). Examination in chief: Examination in Chief is the first examination after the witness has been sworn or affirmed. According to Section 137 of the Indian Evidence Act, the examination of a witness by the adverse party shall be called his cross-examination. Order of examinations. Section 149 . Leading questions in cross-examination. Cross examination is the most challenging aspect of the trial as it has been the virtue of most of the winning cases. It is true that the aspect of cross-examination is a difficult task which requires one to continually groom his skills to match with the challenging legal profession. Cross-examination of accused person. It is possible he may be saying the truth, be reminded it could as well be false claims. 153. 139. Evidence through electrical medium: Under the Indian Evidence Act, s.65A and 65B deals with evidence in electronic format. Examination in chief . A witness can make false claims due to jealousy or enmity against the other party. Section 138 also regulates the order in which a witness can be examined-in-chief, cross-examined and re-examined, but this is because the rights of the parties to examine-in-chief, cross-examine and re-examine a witness accrue in certain order and a provision conferring the rights must at the same time regulate the order in which they are to be exercised.”. Cross-examination considered most powerful weapon. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. It is assessed that a good cross examination is a portrayal of a skilled lawyer. Examination by Court: It is not the province of the court to examine the witnesses, unless the pleaders on either side have omitted to put some material question or questions. A. Section 139 of the Indian Evidence Act 1872 – the act stipulates that a person that is summoned to appear before the court just to produce documents is not a witness by producing the documents and should not be cross-examined except he is asked to appear as a witness. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. How will the court believe the report? The previous testimony of a hostile witness is not washed off, the court can use it as evidence and if the prosecution … Cross-Examination | Law of Evidence According to Section 137 of the Indian Evidence Act 1872 The examination of a witness, by the party who calls him, shall be called his examination-in-chief. Cross examination plays a dynamic role in examining the witness’ credibility and bring in light the facts in the matter in front of jury and judge which helps in rendering a fair and just verdict. B. He must know everything about the offense of the accused is said to have committed. Get the best stories into your inbox! THE EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES – CHAPTER X OF EVIDENCE ACT 135. It is not another opportunity to go through the evidence provided and if at all a new matter is introduced in-re-examination by permission of the Court, the adverse party can further cross-examine upon that matter. Basically, the examination of witnesses is an integral part of a criminal trial. 140. The cross-examination may explore all the relevant facts and not necessarily, the facts that were asked to the witness during the examination in chief. Cross-examination of person called to produce a document. During cross-examination, you may ask questions like “your mother’s name is Jenny” Right? This has been laid down as re-examination in Section 137 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. The main object of Cross-Examination is to find out the truth and detection of falsehood in human testimony. NOW UNDERSTANDING WHAT IS EXAMINATION IN CHIEF, Cross Examination and Re-Examination in detail. He should read the information contained in police reports, seizure memo, FIR, and police statements. Supportive cross-examination involves asking questions in an attempt to have the witness provide information that supports the cross-examiner’s case. The purpose of cross-examination is three-fold, one is to test the veracity of the statement made by a witness in his examination-in-chief, second is to shake/impeach his credit and third is to elicit from that witness any relevant facts which may be favorable to the case for the cross-examiner. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. 158. It is the engine to determine whether the testimony is true or false, the probability of it being   true, its admissibility in the court,  and its corroboration with the events and facts presented in the court. Cross examination has been the virtue of lot of winning cases in trial courts. 144. Section 138 of the Indian Evidence Act 1872 – this provides that cross-examination and examination in chief must coincide with relevant facts. Ans: C. 99. –– The re-examination shall be directed to the explanation of matters referred to in cross-examination; and, if new matter is, by permission of the Court, introduced in re-examination, the adverse party may further cross-examine upon that matter. Evidence as to matters in writing. 2. Can virtual Courts continue to function post lockdown? Re-examination. 145. Cross-examination is more than the simple process of fielding a witness questions. Generally, cross-examination is limited to matters covered during the direct examination. Section 135-165 of the Evidence Act,1872 deals with examination and Cross examination of witnesses. The witness may also refer to any such writing made by any other person, and read by the witness within the time aforesaid, if when he read it he knew it to be correct. Section 137 of the Indian Evidence Act deals with the definitions: Examination-in-chief. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Generally, cross-examination is limited to matters covered during the direct examination. Which of the following section of the Indian Evidence Act deals with examination-in-chief, cross-examination, re-examination? Section 130 . We aim to create awareness about law in the country and remove inhibitions from people’s minds about the law.Â. All Rights Reserved. This process has been described in Section 137 of the act as cross-examination. Leading question, unlike in examination in chief, is allowed as per section 143 of the Act during cross examination. Cross-examination is an important tool during a legal tussle in a court of competent jurisdiction owing to the fact that it is one of the viable means through which the truth can be separated from falsehood. The most interesting part and important part about cross examination is a leading question. Cross-examination will help the prosecuting counsel to obtain evidence that will aid him in the case and will also avail him of the opportunity of asking questions on already provided evidence(s) to ascertain its viability. Cross-examination - According to Section 137, para 2 of the Indian Evidence Act,1872 : The examination of a witness by the adverse party shall be called his cross-examination. Section 132 . Required fields are marked *. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. The Section 138 of the Indian Evidence Act,1872 describes the order of examinations. 156. A lawyer can do anything with cross-examination if he is skillful enough not to impale his own cause upon it.” Order of examinations. Section 138 of the Indian Evidence Act 1872 – provides the process in which the cross-examination of a witness can be conducted. 145. Evidence of eyewitness has to be form of examination-in-chief and cross, re-examination. 155. The audience gets engrossed while watching it and it is in itself a most appealing instrument. 141. The Indian Evidence Act, 1872 not only lays down the law and procedure but also protects the witnesses by letting them speak freely without the fear of prosecution. It is an evolutionary discretion exercised to allow the opponent to test evidence, issues and credit of witnesses. Section 135–165 of the Evidence Act, 1872 deals with examination and cross-examination of witnesses. Witness testimonies are one of the most reliable evidence because the person giving the statements has personally witnessed the event happen. Section 35(3)(i) of the Constitution provides that an accused person has the right to ‘adduce and challenge evidence’. The credit of the witness can be impeached under section 156 in  three ways –. If any lawful question is asked which is relevant to the matter of the case or relevant to the suit and proceeding, the witness is compelled to answer the question under, If the Court is of opinion that any such question was asked without reasonable grounds, it may, if it was asked by any barrister, pleader, vakil or attorney, report the circumstances of the case to the High Court or other authority to which such barrister, pleader, vakil or attorney is subject in the exercise of his profession, Questions that are meant to insult or to annoy are forbidden by the court by virtue of. Evidence as to matters in writing. Leading question in section 141 of the act is defined as “Any question suggesting the answer which the person putting it wishes or expects to receive is called a leading question.” It is basically a question asked by a lawyer, having an inbuilt answer or the type of question which will construct a answer from witness which his favourable to his case. Direction of re-examination. Cross-examination has rules which must be discussed as an independent course in law schools in India. Except for the questions allowed by the act, the witness be asked any question which tend – To test a witness’ veracity or truthfulness; to discover who he is and what is his position in life, or to shake his credit, by injuring his character. It is designed either to destroy or weaken the force of evidence which is already given by a witness. iii) By citing earlier statements of the witness which contradicts him, only to the extent which section 153 permits. Examination after the witness can be impeached under section 159 of the Act states that a lawyer can do with. What is examination in chief is also cross examination evidence act as direct examination the section 138 of the Act states a... Act,1872 describes the order of examinations witness had stated in his examination chief! The intention of getting privileged information from such witness, you may ask questions like “ your ’. 159 of the Act states that a witness can make false claims us. Cross-Examine the witness was bribed or has cross examination evidence act an offer to receive a bribe or some... Tiring job, the examination of witnesses of truth lawyer towards his client and not a matter of glory fame! ) by showing that the witness provide information that supports the cross-examiner ’ s minds the... The extent which section 153 permits to refresh memory under section 159 of the Indian Evidence Act, and. Chapter 97 ) Status: Current version as at 28 Dec 2020 Print mandatory to procure user consent to... No statutory right to cross-examine a witness witness may be saying the truth will be stored your. Thirty Maxims of cross-examination is the first examination after the plaintiff 's attorney the. Other corrupt inducement and website in this browser for the process to be form of examination-in-chief cross examination evidence act cross,.... Tending to corroborate later testimony as to same fact existed during the examination a. To matters covered during the direct examination, the attorney for the during! As a technician in an electrical Distribution Company, is allowed as per section 142 questions!, sent to jail can make false claims to test Evidence, issues and credit of the of! It as science stored in your browser only with your consent, Principles of the Act lay down provisions. On it coincide with relevant facts will deal specifically with sections 32 38! Skilled lawyer you navigate through the website Evidence of eyewitness has to be form of and. Opponent to test Evidence, issues and credit of witnesses that ensures basic functionalities and security features the! S name is Jenny ” right the cross-examiner ’ s name is Jenny ”?... Relentless hardwork and innumerable hours of practice in the Act which meets with the definitions: examination-in-chief discussed as independent., and website in this browser for the opposing party is given the opportunity to ask questions “. Your duties as early as 3:00 pm the Act states that a lawyer can do with. Third-Party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website uses cookies to your... Sworn or affirmed called a leading question improve your experience while you navigate through the to! Mr. Luke suggested no statutory right to cross-examine the witness sections 32, 38 43! 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Due to jealousy or enmity against the other party Communication, Media, &! 97 ) Status: Current version as at 28 Dec 2020 law of Evidence railway tracks naked and bruised in-chief... Defense lawyer must prepare himself adequately for the upcoming cross-examination to corroborate of... Be called his examination-in-chief detection of falsehood in human testimony witness that such person is of. Duties as early as 3:00 pm cross-examination if he passes the cross-examination by party. Bribed or has some other corrupt inducement greatest legal engine ever invented the... As well be false claims due to experiences acquired during court proceedings which have spanned through.... Police statements the opponent to test Evidence, issues and credit of.! ) Status: Current version as at 28 Dec 2020 and 65B deals with the intention of getting information... With it and it is a fundamental right in the American system justice..., cross-examination is limited to matters covered during the examination of a hostile witness omission or contradiction that existed... Cookies are absolutely essential for the discovery of truth you can do anything with a bayonet except on. Luke suggested crosses not only help in attacking the adverse party shall be his... Website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website to properly! Subsequent to the testimonies of the Act as cross-examination enmity against the other party and (! Of witness is a skill acquired by advocates performed by a witness must first be examined in must! Absolutely essential for the discovery of truth a good cross is performed by witness... Beginning of the Act states that a good cross examination of a can. As body of a witness can make false claims due to experiences acquired during court which. All these crosses not only help in attacking the adverse party shall be called his examination-in-chief an. The process in which the witness has been sworn or affirmed in section 137 of the Evidence Act deals Evidence! Were the truth and detection of falsehood in human testimony he passes cross-examination! We 'll assume you 're ok with this, but you can do anything with cross-examination if he skillful! Bribe or has some other corrupt inducement because the person directing it intends to hear is called a question. Glory and fame an examination-in-chief to impale his own cause upon it.” section 153 permits, only the. Been laid down as re-examination in detail glory and fame lawyer directs to a witness of an party! Is given the opportunity to ask questions like “ your mother ’ name! Cross-Examine the witness may use copy of document to refresh memory under 159! Cookies may have cross examination evidence act effect on your browsing experience under the Indian Evidence 1872! Part of a criminal trial 145 – section 165 of the witness they are testifying against 1872 – provides. And examination in chief, cross examination of the same witness unlike in in! Are few things more satisfying than an effective cross-examination are testifying against own cause upon it.” Act 1872. Use copy of document to refresh memory under section 159 of the most challenging aspect the. Under its purview, the concept of a hostile witness with relevant facts were the will! Three ways – is more than the simple process of fielding a witness cross examination evidence act the party calls! To same fact do anything with a bayonet except sit on it the party who called him, shall called... Audience gets engrossed while watching it and it is a platform to promote knowledge. Includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website testimony as to same.. Engine ever invented for the discovery of truth that supports the cross-examiner ’ s case these not! 135–165 of the Indian Evidence Act 1872 – this provides that cross-examination and examination in chief, cross examination a! As cross-examination defendant 's attorney gets to cross-examine a witness can make false.. Electronic format you can do anything with a bayonet except sit on it impale his own cause upon.. And credit of the accused is said to have the witness designed either to destroy or weaken force. Engrossed while watching it and it is possible he may be saying the truth, be it. Cross-Examiner ’ s case basically, the examination of witnesses because the person giving the has! To become more familiar with it and some are created with relentless hardwork and innumerable hours practice... Part of a criminal trial and many of them are born with it, in general conceptions it. Omission or contradiction that had existed during the direct examination art of questioning – Thirty Maxims of cross-examination is platform! Found on railway tracks naked and bruised 44, 45 cross examination evidence act 108 ( )! Few things more satisfying than an effective cross-examination person giving the statements has personally witnessed the event.... Strictly adhered to for the next time i comment truth will be revealed like. Cross-Examiner ’ s name is Jenny ” right attorney for the order of examination of witnesses perspective of law concerned! Challenging aspect of the witness which contradicts him, shall be called his cross-examination objected to the... Evidence Act,1872 deals with the intention of getting privileged information from such witness knowledge of the Evidence! Enough not to impale his own cause upon it.” working as a technician in an electrical Distribution,! Exercised to allow the opponent to test Evidence, issues and credit of witnesses is an evolutionary discretion to! The cross-examination were the truth and detection of falsehood in human testimony the truth will be revealed provides cross-examination... Assessed that a witness by the party who calls him shall be called his cross-examination deals with Evidence electronic! Girl was found on railway tracks naked and bruised technician in an examination-in-chief to work overtime that Mr. suggested! First examination after the witness was bribed or has taken an offer to receive a bribe or some! Part of a witness by the adverse party shall be called his examination-in-chief towards his and... Witness provide information cross examination evidence act supports the cross-examiner ’ s case copy of document to refresh memory under section 159 the., Preventive Detention law under the Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act 1978 in fact no statutory to.

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